More use of commas to offset modifying phrases,
introductory phrases etc.
Use full forms, not abbreviations (versus, not vs.;
etcetera, not etc.)
Concise and precise words, not vague ambiguous words
(nice, good, pretty)
Tentative - to avoid making unsupported
generalizations (‘a possible cause of the company
collapse may have been …’)
Single word verbs, not phrasal verbs (arrange vs.
set up, investigate vs. look into, stand vs. get up)
Use Linking words
Formal linking words (thus, moreover, whereas, for
Limited use of coordination (and, but) to link ideas
Frequent use of subordination to link ideas together
(while, because, which, etc.)
Avoid Impersonal reference
Third person (he, she, it, they)
Occasional use of first person (I, we)
Absence of second person (you)
Colloquial and slang vocabulary (‘bucks’ for
Emotional or attitudinal connotations (‘disastrous’,
Expressions that exaggerate the truth (‘everyone
knows’, ‘it is obvious’)
Contractions (don’t, isn’t), abbreviations (etc.,
Adapted from: Swales, J. & Feak, C. B.
Academic Writing for Graduate Students.
University of Michigan Press