** CHM1045 Review Topics Test 3 **

**Chapter
11:** 11-4 to 11-6 only

1. Solution stoichiometry using
redox. Same as other solution stoichiometry. The reaction must be balanced
according to the redox balancing method.

2. Be able to identify which
substance is being oxidized, reduced. Also the oxidizing agent is the substance
being reduced and the reducing agent is the substance being oxidized. You can identify them either by balancing the
half reactions or by looking at the change in oxidation numbers of the elements
involved in each half reaction

** Chapter 12: **(All except for enrichment on p.
431, and 12-15 only what we covered in class)

1. Be familiar with the relationships of P, V, T and n from:

a. Boyle's law, b. Charles' Law, c.
Avogadro's law, d. Gay-Lussac’s Law

Be able to do calculations when any
of the variables are changing and some of the variables are remaining the same
(Be able to determine what happens to volume if pressure increases and the
temperature and moles of gas remain constant, etc.). In other words, know
whether the variables are directly or inversely related.

2. Combined Gas Law: Three variables
are changing, only n remains constant.

3. Ideal Gas Equation including
calculation of molar mass.

4. Relationship of density of gases
and molar mass at STP (22.4 L/ mol ) and also not at STP.

5. Know what STP is.

6. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
for when you have two different gases together the total pressure is the sum of
the individual partial pressures of the two gases. This relates to the sum of
the moles of the two gases in the ideal gas law if you want to calculate total
pressure. Also this applies to when you have water vapor combined with a gas.
(You have to subtract the partial pressure of the water vapor from the total
pressure (usually barometric or atmospheric pressure) to get the partial
pressure of the gas).

7. Graham's Law of effusion

8. Stoichiometry of gases:

a. Know that the coefficients in a
balanced equation can represent gas volumes as long as the pressure and
temperature remain constant.

b. Be able to use the ideal gas law to convert from one of
the gas variables such as liters to another one such as moles when given
temperature and pressure. If at STP you can convert between liters and moles of
a gas (22.4L=1mol).

c. Be able to calculate molarity in stoichiometry problems
that also involve gases.

d. Be able to determine %purity of a sample which decomposes
to produce a gas or to use % purity for other calculations involving gases.

e. Be able to determine molecular formula given enough
information to determine empirical formula and also enough information to
determine molar mass using the ideal gas law.f. Be
familiar with the kinetic molecular theory of gases and what is an ideal gas:
points in space, negligible volumes, move at fast speeds in straight lines,
undergo elastic collisions, very little attractive forces between particles,
low pressures and high temperatures usually required to behave like ideal
gases, if temperature increases the speed and kinetic energy increases.

g. Know
that gases behave as ideal gases as long as the temperatures are high and the
pressures are low. If there are a lot of attractive forces due to polar
molecules or if the volumes occupied by the particles are relatively large
(mostly due to large molar masses but there could be other reasons dealing with
the geometry of the molecule), then Van der Waals equation applies where a
coefficient of a represents the attractive forces and affects the P term and a
coefficient b represents the molecular volume and affects the V term. If a and
b are 0 or very small then the result is the normal ideal gas equation..

**Chapter 4 **(only 4-11, 4-13, 4-15 to 4-20):

1. Formula
of frequency x wavelength = c

3. Formula of E= h x frequency. h will be given. It
follows that E = hc/l

4. Rydberg's equation R will be given (Rydberg's constant, not the ideal gas
constant)

5. The maximum number of electrons in an energy level: 2n^{2} (two
times n squared)

6. The four quantum numbers and how to determine quantum numbers from an
electron configuration and vice versa. The first quantum number, n, is the
coefficient of the configuration, corresponds to the period and is the
principal energy lever. The second one, l, is the sublevel (l=0 for s, l=1 for
p, l=2 for d and l=3 for f). Remember that to determine the m_{l}
(third quantum number) and the m_{s} (fourth
quantum number) you have to draw the orbitals and place the arrows first. The m_{l}
starts at –l and goes through 0 to +l. The m_{s}
is +1/2 for arrow pointing up (first one placed) and -1/2 for arrow pointing
down (second one placed in an orbital). Remember that an orbital can only hold
2 electrons maximum. The m_{l} corresponds to the individual orbitals.
Also remember that when placing the electrons in the orbitals you spread them
out before you pair them up.

7. Be able to determine if a set of quantum numbers is
not allowed.

8. Shapes of the orbitals and the corresponding name and quantum numbers (the l
quantum number) associated with each shape.

9.
Electronic configurations for all elements and ions including the exceptions
and the configurations for the ions. Remember that Cr, Mo, Cu, Ag and Au are
exceptions which end in s1d5 or s1d10. For representative metal ions (Sn, Pb, Bi, Ga, In, Tl) other than IA, IIA or Al, you remove
from p first then s. For transition metal ions, including the exceptions, you
remove from the s first then d.

10. Noble gas abbreviations.

11. Paramagnetic and diamagnetic and number of unpaired electrons.

12. Isoelectronic species.

13.
Remember that when an electron absorbs energy it can go to a higher energy
level and release it when it goes to a lower energy level. This energy
corresponds to a quantum of energy (a chunk of energy) and is a photon of
energy.

14.
Remember that energy levels, sublevels and orbitals are just regions in space
with 90% probability of finding an electron of that energy content there.

15.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle indicates it is impossible to know the energy
and the momentum of an electron at the same time.