FRAGMENTS

Remember how to find the subject of a sentence?

Every sentence (except for imperative sentences) must have a subject and a verb. The subject of a sentence is the one that does the action of the verb. 

 

Subjects:  Formula to find the subject of a sentence, first find the verb and ask this question:

Who/What + Verb? 
The one-word answer to that question will give you the subject of the sentence.  Remember that the subject will NOT be in a prepositional phrase.

 

Sentence

Formula 

Answer

Subject

I sent the letter. 

Who + sent? 

answer = "I"

"I" = subject

The soup tastes good.

What + tastes?

answer = "the soup"

"the soup" = subject

Most of it is gone.

What + is gone?

answer = "most"

"most" = subject

                     

 

Introduction

 In this lesson, you will learn that some verbs (transitive verbs) MUST have direct objects. If a sentence is missing a needed element, such as a subject, verb or object, that sentence is called a FRAGMENT.  Look at these examples of fragments and independent clauses.  Do you hear the difference in meaning?   Which is easier to understand?

Fragments: 
At the beginning of the presentation.
When you go to the store.

Independent Clauses (complete sentences): 
At the beginning of the presentation, the moderator introduced the speaker
After you go to the store, I will begin dinner.

 

These examples of fragments show you what is missing that makes the sentence incorrect.  

Fragments:

Is not a very good idea. (no subject)
Jenny did not send. (no direct object)
The tall man carrying the leather briefcase. (no verb)

Here are the corrections.

Independent Clause: 

It is not a very good idea.
Jenny did not send the package.
The tall man carrying the leather briefcase was hired for the position.

Now let's see if you have the idea.

 

Exercise 1

Instructions:  Underline the fragments in this paragraph.  Correct each fragment.  (When you finish, check your answers in Appendix 2 "La Llorona".) 

 

La Llorona (The Crying Woman)
by Maria Suyama

    "La Llorona."  Is a folk story which has many versions.  Is about a woman who cries all the time.  The first version of the story is.  There was a woman who killed her two children and herself.  Because she was jealous of her husband.  In addition, people say that her soul.  It attracts men and then kills them.  For instance, many widow women have said that their husbands died because.  The other version is that when she lost her child.  She died of sadness.  Many women said that when their children were born.  They heard a woman crying.  In the evenings, say that she is looking for her baby.  Others say that when a baby dies after he/she is born.  It is because "La Llorona" came for him/her.  Venezuelans believe in this story, and most families have the tradition of telling their children this kind of folk stories.

 

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Transitive Verbs     

            
A transitive verb is a verb that is followed by an object.  The object is a noun or a pronoun. A direct object is the object of a transitive verb.  A transitive verb is a verb that is followed by an object.  In fact, many transitive verbs, such as "send", "mail", and "comb", must be followed by an object. 
A direct object answers the question “what” or “whom.”


Examples:
I sent the package.  She cooks breakfast. The dog ate the turkey. Please give her this letter.

 

 

 Intransitive Verbs

 

An intransitive verb is a verb that is NOT followed by an object.

 

Examples:
Do you travel? (no objects)
The baby is sleeping.
I slept until 10:00 today.
 
They arrived late. 
The sun rose at 6:00 this morning.

 

 

Verbs that can be Transitive OR Intransitive:  There are also verbs that can be transitive or intransitive.

Examples:
Let's finish now. Let's finish this now.

Did he leave? Did he leave his wallet here?

We studied.   We studied the lessons.

We ate.  We ate dinner.

 

Dictionaries and Transitive/Intransitive Verbs

Hint:  Use your English-English dictionary to see if a verb is transitive or intransitive.  The abbreviation "v.t." or "t" means transitive and “v.i.” or "i" means intransitive.  Some dictionaries spell out the words "transitive" and "intransitive."  

Remember… some verbs are both transitive and intransitive.

 

from Merriam-Webster dictionary
http://www.m-w.com/home.htm
 


Main Entry: 2con·ju·gate 

Pronunciation: -j&-"gAt
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -gat·ed; -gat·ing
Date: 1530
transitive senses
1 : to give in prescribed order the various inflectional forms of -- used especially of a verb
2 : to join together
intransitive senses
1 : to become joined together
2 a : to pair and fuse in conjugation b : to pair in synapsis

from Cambridge Online dictionary
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/
 

sleep
verb [I] 
I couldn't sleep because of all the noise next door.
I only slept (for) four hours last night.
I slept late on Saturday.
We had dinner with Ann and Charles and slept the night (with them) (=at their home).
How can Jayne sleep at night with all that on her mind!
See also oversleep; sleepout.

Exercise 2:  

Instructions:  Use the Internet online dictionaries listed above (or a regular one) to learn if the following verbs are transitive, intransitive, or both:

love, study, admire, laugh, begin, know, set

 

 

OK...Back to the lesson now

Hint:  Remember this Magic Formula for Direct Objects:
A transitive verb has a direct Object.  You learned to find the Direct Object in a sentence using this formula:  First locate the subject and the verb (see the formula above) and then ask this question:

subject +  verb  +  what/whom?

The answer to "what/whom" is the only one that gives a direct object.  NOT "when, where, how, to whom, for whom, for what."  What does this mean?  Let's use our formula to see if "left" has a direct object in this sentence.

John left early on his bike to go to the movie with his friends.

John + left + what?   (no answer is in the sentence)

You can find answers to all of these questions, right?

But time, place, reason, manner, location are NOT objects.  They are adverbs.

 

Exercise 3:
Under line the verbs.  Indicate transitive (t) or intransitive (i).   If the verb is transitive, circle the direct object in the sentence.

 

 

1.  Joe and his son, Josh, went to Lake Placid last weekend.

2.  They were going to camp overnight.

3.  They rented a canoe.

4.  They bought bait for fishing.

5.  They wanted to catch some trout for dinner.

6.  They rowed out onto the lake and fished for an hour.

7.  Josh caught three large trout, but his daddy didn't catch anything.

8.  They ate a delicious dinner that both helped prepare.

9.  They had a nice campfire and roasted marshmallows.

10.  When it got dark, Joe told Josh a ghost story.

11.  Josh laughed at the stories.

11.  Later, they both slept on the ground in sleeping bags.

12.  They had a wonderful time together.

13.  They plan to go back again next month.

 

 

 

 

Exercise 4:
Mark C or W  (correct or wrong).  More than one option could be correct.

 

 1.
___ He gave the book to me.

___ He gave to me.

___ He gave the book.

 

2. 
___ She sent her sister a letter.

___ She sent a letter.

___ She sent to her sister.

 

3.
___ He fell me.

___ He fell.

___ He has fallen.

 

 

4. 
___ The baby slept.

___ She slept the baby.

___ She the baby slept.

 

5. 

___ We traveled them.

___ We traveled there.

___ We traveled by plane.

 

 

 

Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions are used to combine ideas.  They show the logical relationship between them.  There are six coordinating conjunctions, (AND,  BUT , SO, FOR, YET, OR, and NOR). To remember these words, think of the word "Fanboys."

 

 

Remember FANBOYS
F for
A and
N nor
B but
O or
Y yet
S so

 

Americans really only use four of these:  AND, BUT, OR and SO.  The British use YET (meaning "but"), and NOR from time to time, but not very often.  Unfortunately, you will probably see these conjunctions on standardized exams such as the CPT (College Placement Test), the CLAST (College Level Academics Skills Test for the Associates degree), the GRE (Graduate Record Exam for entrance into graduate school), so you will probably learn them in your grammar classes.  Since this is a Writing lab, you will learn the four common coordinators:  AND, BUT, OR, and SO.   If you would like to study the others, you can do so at this Website:  

 

Meanings

AND is for additional information

OR is for an option

SO is for a result or consequence

BUT show contrast or surprise

 

Punctuation rules and examples:

 

1.  "So" always connects two complete sentences.  Both parts of the joined sentence must have a subject and verb. 

Example:
It is raining.  We are going to get wet.
It is raining , so we are going to get wet.

2.  To connect two complete sentences (independent clauses), put a comma before them.

Example:  

Cynthia worked  in Germany.  Cynthia studied  Austria.

Cynthia worked Germany , and she studied in Austria. 

Cynthia worked Germany , but she studied in Austria. 

 

3.  If the second sentence is NOT a complete sentence, do not use a comma in front of the coordinator.

AND:  
She likes to jog.  She likes to swim.
She likes to jog  and  swim.  

OR:
She might go swimming.  She might go for a drive.
She might go swimming  or for a drive.
She might go swimming , or  she might go for a drive.

BUT:
Joan is poor.  She is one of the happiest people I know.
Joan is poor , but  she is one of the happiest people I know.
Joan is poor  but  happy.

 

 

Exercise 1:  

Instructions:  Read the sentences. Combine them to make one sentence, using BUT or SO. Pay attention to punctuation.

1. The 1984 Summer Olympics were in Los Angeles. The 1988 Olympics will be in Seoul, Korea.

 

2. Ice-skating and hockey are winter sports. These events are in the Winter Olympics.

 

3. A soccer field is eighty yards wide. A football field is fifty-three yards wide.

 

4. A football is oval. A soccer ball is round.

 

5. Soccer players cannot touch the ball with their hands. They must kick the ball.

 

6. Football players can tackle other players. Football is a dangerous game.

 

7. A soccer match is ninety minutes long. A football is a dangerous game.

 

8. That man played soccer for money. He cannot compete in the Olympics.

 

9. Athletes train for many years. They can compete in the Olympics.

 

10. Everyone wants to win. All players try to do their best.

 

Exercise 2:

Instructions.  Use the rules above to help you with these answers.  Fill in the blanks with the most logical coordinating conjunction (AND, BUT, OR, or SO).  Add commas where needed. 

 

  1. *I have worked at MDCC  ________  FIU ________  not at Publix.

  2. Bill is a student ________   Tom is a teacher.

  3. Bob and Sue live in Miami  ________  study Spanish at the local community college. 

  4. Bobby runs quickly but awkwardly.

  5. Bobby speaks softly but clearly.

  6. He celebrated on the Fourth of July ________   had to get back to work on the fifth.

  7.  I like History  ________  English ________  I find French  ________  Psychology difficult.

  8. I studied at UM ________   at FIU ________  I have not studied at Harvard.

  9. Joan is strict but fair.

  10. Julie went to Spain ________   Bob followed later.

  11. MDCC offers two-year degrees ________   UM offers graduate degrees.

  12. Mom made bread but not pie for supper.

  13. My aunt is planning to visit us ________   Uncle Clark can't come.

  14. Sue is studying ________   she does her own housework.

  15. Sue is studying  ________  does her own housework.

 

 

Exercise 3: 

Instructions:  Error Analysis:  Write "C" if the sentence is correct or ""I" if it is incorrect.  If it is wrong, correct it.  The error could be in punctuation or LOGIC.  


1)  ___c    ___i   Francis is strict ,  but  she is fair with her employees.  

2)  ___c    ___i   I studied , so passed the exam.

3)  ___c    ___i   I studied , so failed the exam.

4)  ___c    ___i   I studied , so I passed the exam.

5)  ___c    ___i   She likes to jog  but  not to swim.

6)  ___c    ___i   She likes to jog ,  but  not to swim.

7)  ___c    ___i   She likes to jog,  but she doesn't like to swim. 

8)  ___c    ___i   She likes to jog , so not to swim.

9)  ___c    ___i   I failed the exam so I must repeat the course.

10)  ___c    ___i   I failed the exam , so I must repeat the course.

11)  ___c    ___i   I failed the exam so must repeat the course.    

12)  ___c    ___i   I failed the exam , so I must repeat the course.

13)  ___c    ___i   He is strong ,  but he can lift that truck

14)  ___c    ___i   He is strong ,  so  he can lift that truck

15)  ___c    ___i   He is strong , but he cannot lift that truck

16)  ___c    ___i   He is strong,  so can lift the cart.

17)  ___c    ___i   She is sitting in the shade , so it is hot.

18)  ___c    ___i   It is hot , so she is sitting in the shade.

19)  ___c    ___i   She studies in the morning,  and  she works at night.

20)  ___c    ___i   She studies in the morning  and  works at night.

21)  ___c    ___i   She studies in the morning  but  works at night.

22)  ___c    ___i   She likes to jog , swim and ride horses.

23)  ___c    ___i   She likes to jog swim and ride horses.

24)  ___c    ___i   She likes to jog , she likes to swim , and ride horses.

25)  ___c    ___i   She likes to jog , she likes to swim , and likes to ride horses.

 

Exercise 4:  

Instructions:  Use the conjunction in parentheses to make each pair of sentences below into one sentence. Write the new sentence correctly.

 

1. (and) Joan vacuumed the carpets. Stan washed the windows.

2. (but) Her dress was quite plain. Her hat was very beautiful.

3. (or) You may play some records. You may read a magazine.

4. (but) Alan complains. Theo doesn’t.

 

Exercise 5

Instructions:  Look at the picture below.  Use the words in each item to write a complete sentence.  Use an appropriate coordinating conjunction and punctuation where needed.  You may need to add OR eliminate words to make the sentences logical.

  

 

    

 

  1. polar bears hungry / visit neighbor / look for food

  2. mama polar bear sees igloo in distance / mama polar bear takes baby bears / mama and babies go to igloo

  3. mama polar bear arrive at igloo  / two baby polar bears arrive at igloo

  4. polar bears outside the igloo / one Eskimo inside

  5. polar bear / very big / igloo door very small / polar bear cannot enter/ Eskimo happy / Eskimo nervous

  6. mama polar bear smells fish / mama polar bear wants fish / mama polar bear won't leave.

  7. mama polar bear tries to enter / mama polar bear hurts nose / mama polar bear growls 

  8. Eskimo / afraid / Eskimo throws fish at Mama polar bear 

  9. mama bear takes fish / mama polar bear leaves igloo / baby polar bears leave igloo / bears eat fish

  10. Eskimo happy / Eskimo hungry now

 

 

Web Sites for Coordinating Conjunctions

If you would like more practice with coordinators, visit these two websites:

http://www.ucfv.bc.ca/esl/conjunctionmatch2.htm to practice all coordinating conjunctions

http://www.ucfv.bc.ca/esl/fanboys.htm   to quiz your self on all coordinating conjunctions

 

 

 

 

 

Adverb Clauses (Subordinate Clauses) and Subordinators

 

 

What are Subordinators?  

Subordinating conjunctions (subordinators) are words that connect an independent clause to a dependent clause. 

Subordinators do not connect individual words OR individual phrases. 

Subordinators do not connect any word groups that are the same. 

Subordinators only connect independent clauses and dependent clauses.

 

What does this mean?  

If you begin a sentence with one of these words, (subordinators ), you need to write one more complete sentence in order to finish the sentence.  All of these subordinators are followed by a subject and a verb, but they only tell additional information about the main sentence.  

 

 

#1  subordinating conjunctions of time:  after, before, until, as soon as, while, when
#2  subordinating conjunctions of cause and effect: because (before the cause), since (before the effect), so that (before the effect)
#3  subordinating conjunctions of condition: if, unless 
#4  subordinating conjunctions of show an unexpected opposite result  though, even though, although

 

In this lesson, you will learn to use:

 

before, after, when, as soon as

because

if

even though, although

 

 

Read this story aloud, paying close attention to the subordinators.  Look at the commas in the paragraph.  

 

Jane arrived after the reading class started.  When she walked in, the professor asked her why she was late.  As soon as Jane  heard that question, she knew she was in trouble.  Before she answered the teacher, she thought carefully about her words.  If he said the wrong thing, the professor would make her leave the room.  Even though there was no exam today, Jane wanted to stay and hear review for the midterm.  Finally, she thought of an excuse.  "I was late today because my husband forgot where he parked the car after he came home from a party last night.  It won't happen again because I am going to divorce him this afternoon."  When the professor heard this, he laughed and let Jane come into the class.

 

 

 

Sentence Format and Punctuation

 

Look at the first sentence in this story.  The main clause (independent clause or main idea) is "Jane arrived."  Note the punctuation.  There are two ways to write this sentence correctly, but the punctuation changes depending on your choice.  Note that in #1, you MUST use a comma.  In #2, you may NOT use a comma:

   

 

Rule:  Put a comma at the end of a subordinate clause when it comes first in a sentence.

          Do not put a comma after the independent clause if it is first.

         Do not use the future tense after "when," "if," "after," etc. 

 

 

 

Exercise 1:

Rewrite each of these sentences using the alternative pattern.

Example:   

    Before the movie ended, I left.

    I left before the movie ended.

 

1.  Jane arrived after the reading class started.  

 

2.  When she walked in, the professor asked her why she was late.  

 

3.  As soon as Jane  heard that question, she knew she was in trouble.  

 

4.  Before she answered the teacher, she thought carefully about her words.  

 

5.  If he said the wrong thing, the professor would make her leave the room.  

 

6.  Even though there was no exam today, Jane wanted to stay and hear the review for the midterm.

 


Additional Practice with Transitional ("Linking") Words

List of transitions: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/general/gl_transition.html 

Here is the menu for the series of activities you will do to learn about clauses, subordinating conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions, and conjunctive adverbs (also called transition words).  There are THREE parts to each activity.  After you read the explanation of each concept, there are exercises to do: fill in the blank and (sometimes) sentence combination.  Do all of the activities at the website.

    Start here:  http://alci.lbcc.cc.ca.us/alci-dennis/coordination1/clauses%20and%20sentences.htm

       OR you can use each link below to go directly to the activities.

    Clauses and Sentences:

    Coordinating Conjunctions:

    Subordinating Conjunctions:

    Conjunctive Adverbs:

     

    If you need more.....This site can teach you a lot about combining sentences: http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/combining_skills.htm 


 

 

 

 

Disasters---a Class activity. 

Exercise 2

Instructions:   Divide into 4 groups.  Select a disaster and with the members of your group, read the safety instructions and fill in the blanks with subordinators: when, while, as soon as, after, before, if, because, although.  There may be more than one possible answer.  

Fill in the small blanks with commas IF NEEDED.  

Present your work to the class.

 

Fires

___________  you are trapped in a building during a fire __there are several steps you can take to protect your safety.

  • ___________  you close the doors __to keep out smoke and fire__ put wet  towels, rugs or other fabrics under the doors. 
  • ___________   you close all the doors __ stay by the window and watch for the fire department.
  • ___________  you wait for help__ put a damp cloth over your nose and mouth to make it easier to breathe. 
  • ___________  opening a window will __change the air pressure in the room__ smoke may enter the room from the inside or the outside of the building.  ___________  this is dangerous__ open a window enough to let in some fresh air and to attract attention to your location. 
  • ___________  smoke starts to enter the room __through the open window, the door, or the vents__ immediately CLOSE the window.
  • Do NOT break the window. ___________  the window is broken__ there may be no way to keep smoke, hot gases and fire from entering the room.
  • ___________  there is a telephone in the room__ call for help. ___________  not, yell out the window and make noise to attract attention.
  • ___________   it is safe to have the window open__ wave a sheet, a large piece of cloth or another bright object outside the window to attract attention. 
  • Wait for rescue.

 

Earthquakes

  • ___________  the earthquake begins, ___________  you are inside a building__ you should stay inside. 
  • ___________  you are outdoors__ stay outdoors.  Don't run in or out of buildings. 
  • ___________  you are indoors ___________  the shaking starts__ wait until the shaking stops ___________  moving outside. 
  • ___________  you are in bed__ stay there and use a pillow to cover and protect your head. 
  • ___________  you are outdoors__ move away from buildings, trees and power lines.
  • ___________  you are driving in a car when you feel the road shaking__ slow down and stop in a clear place - away from trees, buildings and power lines. 
  • Stay in the car __  ___________  the shaking stops.

After a quake.....

  • ___________  the shaking stops__ check yourself and people around you for injuries.
  • Check around you for fires. ___________  you put out small fires__ make sure that gas and electricity is turned off. 
  • Much damage related to earthquakes occurs__   ___________  the actual quake ends. Often fires start ___________  electricity lines short circuit __near broken gas pipes. ___________  water pipes break,  it will be difficult to put the fires out.
  • ___________  the quake ends __ do not go back into damaged buildings - you can never tell when or if they will collapse.
  • Listen to emergency instructions on local radio stations. Don't try to use the telephone__ unless someone is seriously injured.
  • Be careful__  ___________  you open cupboards and doors __ ___________  objects may be leaning against the door and may fall outwards towards you.

 

Floods

Floods are the most common and widespread of all natural hazards. ___________  some floods develop over a period of days__flash floods can develop in just a few minutes. Wherever you live, be aware of potential flooding hazards. ___________  you live in a low-lying area, or near water__ you must be prepared for floods.

During or after heavy rains...

  • In heavy rains, ___________   you see any possibility of a flash flood__ move immediately to a safer location. ___________  you wait for instructions to move__ it may be too late.
  • As you listen to radio and television for information__ put sandbags around your doors.
  • ___________  you evacuate, secure your home.  ___________  you turn off the electricity__ make sure you have enough fuel in your car, and leave early to avoid being stopped by flooded roads.

After a flood...

  • Do not visit disaster areas __   ___________  you are authorized to do so.
  • ___________  you have flood insurance__ notify your agent that you have a loss.
  • ___________  floods can cause injury__ tune in to radio to learn which shelters and medical facilities are open.
  • Do not enter your home __  ___________  flood waters are over the first floor; you cannot tell whether the building is safe to enter.
  • Check with local authorities __  ___________  you drink any water. Wells should be pumped out and the water tested by authorities __  ___________  drinking.
  • Do not consume food __  ___________  it has come into contact with flood waters.
  • Do not handle live electrical equipment in wet areas. Have an expert check all equipment __  ___________  you use it.

Tornadoes 

___________  a tornado strikes, learn the terms used to describe tornado threats; tornado watch and tornado warning.
  • ___________   you see any revolving, funnel shaped clouds__ report them immediately by telephone to 911.
  • ___________  storm season arrives__ learn the locations of shelters.
  • Have emergency supplies on hand __ ___________  tornado season starts
  •  
    • ___________  a tornado strikes__ listen to radio and television newscasts for the latest information and instructions. 
    • ___________  a tornado is sighted__ stay away from windows, doors and outside walls. 
    • Take cover immediately __   ___________  you see a funnel cloud.
    • ___________  the tornado is close to your house__ protect your head from falling objects or flying debris. 
    • Do not attempt to drive away from a tornado in a car or other vehicle __ ___________  these storms can be very fast.
     

    After a tornado......

    • ___________  the tornado__ be careful ___________  you enter a building __ ___________  it could be damaged from the high winds. ___________  you enter a tornado-damaged building, be sure that walls, ceiling and roof are in place.
    • Look out for broken glass and downed power lines __ ___________  you drive or walk on the streets after a tornado..
    • Check for injuries. Do not attempt to move seriously injured persons __ ___________  they are in immediate danger __ of further injury. Call for help immediately.

 

Transitional Expressions (transitions):

 

Transitions (conjunctive adverbs) are words that connect an independent clause to another independent clause. 

Transitions do not connect individual words OR individual phrases. 

Transitions do not connect any word groups that are the same. 

Transitions only connect independent clauses, and they show a specific meaning between the ideas.

 

What does this mean?  You will always have a two complete sentences to connect with these words.  All of these transitions are followed by a subject and a verb.

 

#1  Transitions of time / sequence:  then, next, afterwards, finally, meanwhile
#2  Transitions of contradiction: however
#3  Transitions of consequence therefore 
#4  Transitions of further information  in addition, also
("Also" does NOT need commas around it if it is in the middle of the sentence.)

 

There are three punctuation patterns for these transition words:

1.  Indep. Clause  .  TW  ,  indep. Clause   .
2.   Indep. Clause 
;  TW  ,   indep. Clause    .
3.   Indep. Clause 
.  Beginning of indep. Clause ,  TW  ,    end of indep. Clause   .

Pay attention to the details of punctuation and capitalization here. 

Exercise:

Fix the errors in punctuation and capitalization in each of these sentences.  None is correct.

1.      a.  She came 15 minutes late to class, therefore, the teacher made her leave the room.

b.  She came 15 minutes late to class. therefore, the teacher made her leave the room.

c.  She came 15 minutes late to class. The teacher, therefore made her leave the room.

2.     a. I do not feel well; However, I must go to school and take the exam.

b. I do not feel well; however I must go to school and take the exam.

c. I do not feel well. however, I must go to school and take the exam.

3.     a.  This baseball game is almost over. however, the players for the next game have not arrived yet.

b.  This baseball game is almost over, however, the players for the next game have not arrived yet.

c.  This baseball game is almost over. however  the players for the next game have not arrived yet.

4.     a.  They have a swimming pool at their house.  In addition they have a tennis court.

b.  They have a swimming pool at their house in addition.   They have a tennis court.

c.  They have a swimming pool at their house;  In addition they have a tennis court.

d.  They have a swimming pool at their house.  in addition they have a tennis court.

5.     a.  They are having turkey for Thanksgiving, they are also having ham. 
             ("Also
" does NOT need commas around it if it is in the middle of the sentence.)

b.  They are having turkey for Thanksgiving, in addition they are  having ham.

c.  They are having turkey for Thanksgiving.  in addition, they are also having ham.

d.  They are having turkey for Thanksgiving;  in addition they are also having ham.


Web Sites for Sentence Connecting 

Coordinators, Subordinators, Transition Words

  1. Practice "So, Because" 
    http://iteslj.org/quizzes/lb/sobe.html
     
  2. Practice 'but, except, and, however, even though, unless, plus, therefore, because, since, so' 
    http://depts.gallaudet.edu/ESL/comconnectives.htm
     
    Dependent Clause Noun Phrases Test
  3. Practice After, Since, and For.  http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/js/vm/fb-afterforsince.html 
  4. Transition Words: Explanation: http://www.uvsc.edu/owl/handouts/conjunctions.html#conj

  5. Transition Words Quizzes : http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/9901/gc-connectives.html http://smccd.net/accounts/sevas/esl/gramcheck/9-10.html

Fragments (part 1)

  1. PowerPoint Presentation on Fragments (expl)
  2. Pretest and lessons on Sentence fragments (expl. and quizzes)
  3. Practice:

Punctuation

    1. Punctuation between two independent clauses
    2. Rules for comma usage
    3. Punctuation Marks Besides the Comma
    4. Commas with Coordinating Conjunctions
    5. Commas with Introductory Elements
    6. Commas: Fill-in-the-blanks
    7. Comma Usage
    8. Punctuation: Fill-in-the-blanks
    9. Punctuation
    10. Punctuation II
    11. Punctuation III
    12. Punctuation IV
    13. Punctuation V
    14. Apostrophes

Additional handouts / Quizzes

Combine these sentences.  Use the words in the last column for each sentence.  Pay attention to the punctuation and capital letters..  

Examples:  

a. john is a student here rutherford is not a composer: but  (no comma)

John is a student here but not Rutherford.

b. john is a student here rutherford is not a composer:  but  (with comma)

John is a student here, but Rutherford is not.

c. john is a student here rutherford is not a composer:  although (with comma)

Although John is a student here , Rutherford is not.

d. john is a student here rutherford is not a composer:  however

John is a student here ; however ,  Rutherford is not.

e. john is a student here rutherford is not a composer: However (capital letter

John is a student here . However ,  Rutherford is not.

 

1. beethoven is a composer mozart is a composer: and  (no comma)
2. beethoven is a composer mozart is a composer: also
3. beethoven is a composer rutherford is not a composer: but  (no comma)
4. beethoven is a composer rutherford is not a composer:  but  (with comma)
5. potatoes are vegetables  apples aren't vegetables: but  (no comma)
6. potatoes are vegetables  apples aren't vegetables: However (capital letter)
7. potatoes are vegetables  apples aren't vegetables: although
8 the lights are on   the radio isn't on: but  (no comma)
9 the lights are on   the radio isn't on: but  (with comma)
10 the lights are on   the radio isn't on: even though (with comma
11 spinach is a vegetable  corn  is a vegetable: and  (no comma)
12 spinach is a vegetable  pears are fruit: although (no comma)
13 spinach is a vegetable  pears are fruit: however
14 spinach is a vegetable  pears are fruit:  but  (with comma)
15 spinach is a vegetable  corn  is a vegetable: also

Combine these sentences.  Use the words in the last column for each sentence.  Pay attention to the punctuation and capital letters..  

1 air travel is fast  air travel is pleasant: and  (no comma)
2 air travel is fast  air travel is pleasant: also
3 air travel is fast  car travel is tiring: but  (no comma)
4  john is a good student  mary is a only an average student: although (no comma)
5  john is a good student  mary is a good student: also
6  john is a good student  mary is a bad student: while  (with comma)
7

the students are writing 

the students are thinking: and  (no comma)
8 john's car broke down he got a ride home with ana: so
9

the students are writing 

the students are not thinking: although (no comma)
10 the teacher is speaking the students are listening: while  (no comma)
11 jaime loves horses her sister prefers emus. but  (with comma)
12 jaime loves horses her sister doesn't but  (no comma)
13 jaime loves horses her sister prefers emus. however
14 jaime loves horses her sister prefers emus. although (with comma)
15 jaime loves horses her sister prefers emus. although (no comma)

Combine these sentences.  Use the words in the last column for each sentence.  Pay attention to the punctuation and capital letters..  

1

the students are writing 

the students are thinking: as (with comma)
2 the teacher is speaking the students are listening: as (no comma)
3 the teacher is speaking the students are listening: and (no comma)
4 the teacher is speaking the students are not listening: although (no comma)
5 the teacher is speaking the students aren't listening: however
6 the women are studying the women are working: and (no comma)
7 the women are studying the women are working: and (with comma) 
8 the women are studying the women aren't working: even though (with comma)
9 atlanta is a beautiful city miami is a beautiful city: and  (no comma)
10 atlanta is a beautiful city miami is more beautiful than atlanta: but  (with comma)
11 john's car broke down he got a ride home with ana so 
12 john's car broke down he got a ride home with ana because (no comma)
13 john's car broke down he got a ride home with ana because (comma)
14 the dog wants to go out i opened the door for him. so
15 the dog wants to go out i opened the door for him. because  (with comma)

Web Sites

Fragments (part 2)

Explanation:  PowerPoint Lesson  (Review from last chapter):  http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/fragments.htm

Practice:  Identifying and Correcting Fragments


 

Run-on Sentences

Explanation PowerPoint Presentation on Run-ons: http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/runons.htm

Practice Quizzes:  Fixing Run-ons. Instructions quoted from the Site:  "After each run-on sentence below select the remedy that would best repair that sentence. If the sentence is correctly written the way it stands, select the first option. The explanation will attempt to justify our editing of that sentence. 
http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/runons_quiz.htm

Quiz:  Run-ons and Fragments. Instructions quoted from the Site:  "After each sentence, select the option which best describes that sentence. The first option will always be that the sentence is fine. Other options will not only define the structural flaw but suggest a way of fixing it. Choose the option with the best remedy.
"http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/cgi-shl/quiz.pl/fragments_quiz.htm



Comma Splices

Explanation of Comma Splices:Instructions quoted from the Site:  "Click on "The sentence, please!" and a sentence containing a comma splice will appear in the top text-area. Repair the sentence. When you are finished with each sentence (or, if you wish, wait until you've done them all), click on "Grammar's Version," which will reveal how we would have repaired the sentence. Don't cheat by looking at Grammar's Version first."
http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/runons.htm#splice

Practice Exercises Avoiding Comma Splices:  Instructions quoted from the Site:  "Click on "The sentence, please!" and a sentence containing a comma splice will appear in the top text-area. Repair the sentence." http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/nova/nova3.htm http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/nova/nova4.htm
 

 


Web Resources
One Step at a Time
Level One

 

Diagnostic Quiz and Customized Practice for Grammar in General

http://www.collegeem.qc.ca/cemdept/anglais/trouble3.htm  


 

Chapter 2

     Sentence Combining 

    Coordinators, Subordinators, Transition Words

    1. Practice "So, Because" 
      http://iteslj.org/quizzes/lb/sobe.html
       
    2. Practice 'but, except, and, however, even though, unless, plus, therefore, because, since, so' 
      http://depts.gallaudet.edu/ESL/comconnectives.htm
       
      Dependent Clause Noun Phrases Test
    3. Practice After, Since, and For.  http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/js/vm/fb-afterforsince.html 
    4. Transition Words: Explanation: http://www.uvsc.edu/owl/handouts/conjunctions.html#conj

    5. Transition Words Quizzes : http://www.aitech.ac.jp/~iteslj/quizzes/9901/gc-connectives.html http://smccd.net/accounts/sevas/esl/gramcheck/9-10.html


 

Additional Practice with Transitional ("Linking") Words

List of transitions: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/general/gl_transition.html 

Here is the menu for the series of activities you will do to learn about clauses, subordinating conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions, and conjunctive adverbs (also called transition words).  There are THREE parts to each activity.  After you read the explanation of each concept, there are exercises to do: fill in the blank and (sometimes) sentence combination.  Do all of the activities at the website.

    Start here:  http://alci.lbcc.cc.ca.us/alci-dennis/coordination1/clauses%20and%20sentences.htm

       OR you can use each link below to go directly to the activities.

    Clauses and Sentences:

    Coordinating Conjunctions:

    Subordinating Conjunctions:

    Conjunctive Adverbs:

     

    If you need more.....This site can teach you a lot about combining sentences: http://webster.commnet.edu/grammar/combining_skills.htm 


 

Punctuation, Punctuation, and MORE Punctuation

    1. Punctuation between two independent clauses
    2. Rules for comma usage
    3. Punctuation Marks Besides the Comma
    4. Commas with Coordinating Conjunctions
    5. Commas with Introductory Elements
    6. Commas: Fill-in-the-blanks
    7. Comma Usage
    8. Punctuation: Fill-in-the-blanks
    9. Punctuation
    10. Punctuation II
    11. Punctuation III
    12. Punctuation IV
    13. Punctuation V
    14. Apostrophes
       

 

     

 


Last updated 06/02/03 by jgarcia@mdcc.edu 
Software  (Download and install Neuron in order to run these programs.)
 

Hit Counter