Phrases and Clauses, Some Definitions

 

A phrase is a group of words missing a subject and/or a verb.

Therefore, it cannot be a complete sentence.

 

          EXAMPLES:    prepositional phrases

                                      introductory phrases

 

A clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.

Some clauses are sentences and some are not.  There are two types of clauses, those which are sentences and those which are not.

 

A simple sentence is a group of words containing the following:

          a.      a subject

          b.      a verb

          c.       a complete thought

 

Another name for a simple sentence is an independent clause.

 

 

A sentence fragment is group of words missing one or more of the ingredients for a sentence.  The two basic kinds of fragments are as follows:

          a.      a phrase

          b.      a dependent clause

 

          FRAGMENTS                                        SENTENCES

 

          Phrase                                   

          Dependent Clause                                   Independent Clause

 

 

A sentence must have a subject, a verb and a complete thought and each clause must have a subject and a verb.  What is missing from the dependent clause to make it a fragment?

 

A dependent clause begins with a “dependent word” that creates the fragment.  This “dependent word” is a type of

joining word called a subordinating conjunction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phrase –    group of words

                   missing subject, verb or both

 

                   EXS. prepositional phrase

                             introductory phrase

 

                   A phrase is an example of a fragment.

 

Fragment – an incomplete statement

                     missing subject, verb, or completeness

 

Clause -     group of words

                   has subject and verb

                  

                   2 TYPES –         A.      independent (IC)

                                                B.      dependent (DC)

                  

                   One type can be a sentence; the other is a kind of

                   fragment.

 

Sentence - group of words

                   has subject and verb

                   has a complete thought (can stand alone)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                  

Which can have a subject and a verb – phrase, dependent clause or independent clause?

 

                   ANS:         dependent clause, independent clause

                                      Key word = CLAUSE

 

 

Which can be a sentence - phrase, dependent clause or independent clause?

 

                   ANS:         independent clause

 

Which is a fragment – phrase, dependent clause or independent clause?

 

                   ANS:         phrase, dependent clause

 

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Sentence                                                   Fragment

IC                                                               DC

                                                                   Phrase

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two kinds of fragments compared:

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (PP) VS. DC

 

                            

 

 

Both have nouns.

Prepositional phrases don’t have verbs.

 

PP – begins with preposition

DC – begins with subordinating conjunction

 

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Two kinds of clauses compared:

DC VS. IC

 

DC begins with a subordinating conjunction

 

EXS.          When the class is over.

                   If you fell asleep in class.

                   Even though he is generous.

 

Take away the conjunction and you have an IC.

Take away the conjunction and you have a sentence.